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Both English and Chinese are generated by construing a causative event from the perspective of the affected entity rather than the agent. As I have mentioned, English and Chinese share the same mechanism to generate prototypical passives. Both English and Chinese prototypical passives are generated by construing <a href="http://www.links-uk.com">links london</a> a causative event from the perspective of affected entity. It is due to the fact that English and Chinese follow the same condition to generate passives: only the passives expressing a causative event are acceptable, which means that the subject of the passive must be an affected entity involved in the event, or it would be unacceptable. Therefore, to examine how the two languages follow the same condition to generate prototypical passives.From the examples we can see that the third sentence obviously means <a href="http://www.links-uk.com">links of london</a> that we completed the job, while the first sentence does not. In the third sentence, we may get the impression that finishing the job is by no means an easy task; it is an accomplishment. If the job is the goal of the action’s effect, then <a href="http://www.links-uk.com/links-of-london-rings">links of london rings</a> it will be easier to passives it than the first one, because the passive form expresses the affectedness of the subject. So the last sentence can be accepted while the second sentence can not.Although English and Chinese adhere to the same steps to set up the central functions of the prototypical passive, they are different in coding them syntactically. NP+BE+V-ED is the basic structure of the English prototypical passive while the Chinese prototypical passive is made up of PAT-NP+BEI+V+NP. Basically, there are two main differences between English and Chinese in the syntactic treatment of the central function of prototypical passives. The one is the difference in the schematization of the gentles passive in <a href="http://www.links-uk.com/links-of-london-bangles">links of london bangles</a> which the syntactic treatment of the passive verb is different. The other one lies in the difference in the schematization of the eventful passive in which the syntactic treatment of the demoted agent is different.Here are some reasons why the syntactic differences between English and Chinese prototypical passives occur. Lancaster wrote in his Cognitive Grammar that every language has its specific ways to <a href="http://www.links-uk.com/links-of-london-rings">Links London Rings</a> schematize the same conceptual structure, which corresponded directly to their specific linguistic forms. In his point of view, grammar is symbolic in nature, which reflects the speaker’s subjective imagery on human experience. Linguistic forms correspond to semantic structures, which are derived from human’s imagery on experience. Lancaster also considers grammar as a conventionalized symbolic reflection or projection of the conceptualized human experience. Just like different languages have their specific ways, for example, their specific semantic structures, to represent the same <a href="http://www.links-uk.com/links-of-london-watch">Links London Watch</a> conceptual structure, and just as the semantic structure is considered to be symbolic.So we can reach the conclusion that different languages have their specific ways to schematize their conceptualized human experience, which leads to various grammatical structures to express the same concept. An important research topic in cognitive linguistics is the influence of construal on the choice of grammatical structure. Construal is the cognitive process of a viewpoint from which one observes the phenomenon. I will explain it by quoting from Lancaster’s interpretation of it. Facing a glass with half glass of water, different people apply <a href="http://www.links-uk.com/links-of-london-charms/heart-disc-charm">Heart Disc Charm</a> different sentence structures to describe it due to their different perspective or cognitive process towards a certain phenomenon. Even the forms or content of their expressions are totally different: The first step in translating Chinese passive sentences is to discern them from various other sentences, because of the paratactic feature of Chinese sentences. The relations among sentences, clauses, phrases, or even words are often ambiguous, where more than one interpretation is available. To add up to our difficulty, most Chinese passive sentences have the identical structural features as active sentences. But we will only focus on those marked passive sentences in this part. Reprinted from:http://www.links-london.biz/i-feel-you-always-by-my-side/